Serves 6 – Preparation time 30 minutes.

Laison 01Laison


Liaison is a mixture of egg yolks and cream, used to enrich flavors and slightly thicken sauces and soups. It is not used as a thickener per se, but adds sheen, smoothness, body and a golden ivory color.

Egg yolks coagulate at 149°F / 65°C. Adding cream raises this point to approximately 180°F / 82°C. Blend egg yolks and cream until evenly blended. Add approximately 1/3 of the hot liquid to the liaison to help prevent a drastic temperature change, which could cause curdling.

When adequate hot liquid has been added, return the tempered liaison to the soup or sauce. Return the pot to low heat (below 185°F / 85°C), stirring constantly until the soup or sauce thickens slightly.

Add the liaison to the soup or sauce as late as possible, prior to serving.


Liaison RatioTo Thicken 24 fluid oz. / 720 ml Liquid

3 Parts Cream – 8 fluid oz. / 240 ml

1 Part Egg – 3 large yolks or 2-1/2 fluid oz. / 75 ml


Pure Starch Slurries

Serves 6 – Preparation time 30 minutes.

Pure Starch Slurries 01Pure Starch Slurries


Cornstarch, arrowroot and other pure starches – tapioca, potato starch and rice flour –   have greater thickening power, ounce for ounce, than flour. Keep in mind, these slurries break down faster than a flour roux (starches settle out of the liquid) and must be re-stirred to maintain their quality.

Thoroughly blend the starch and liquid to the consistency of heavy cream. Pour the slurry slowly into the simmering liquid. Whisk constantly to prevent clumping or scorching. Bring the liquid back to a boil and bring the sauce to the desired thickness and consistency.


Thickening Powers – Compared to Flour

  • Potato Starch – 0.2
  • Tapioca – 0.4
  • Arrowroot – 0.5
  • Cornstarch – 0.5
  • Rice Flour – 0.6


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The Roux

Serves 6 – Preparation time 30 minutes.

the roux 01The Roux


Roux thickens sauces, soups and stews, as well as providing flavors. Both the flavor and color become deeper as cooking time increases. Various flours and fats – whole butter, vegetable oils, rendered chicken fat or other rendered fats – may be used.

Flours vary in starch to protein ratios. Cake flours contain more starch than bread flours and will, therefore, have more thickening power than bread flour. All-Purpose flour is between bread and cake flour.

Roux varies from light, blond, brown to dark.


A Typical Roux14 to 16 oz. of roux per 1 gallon / 3.84 liter of liquid

  • Use Clarified Butter
  • Use All-Purpose Flour
  • Formula by weight: 3 parts flour to 2 parts fat


  • Heat the clarified butter, whole butter, vegetable oil or other rendered poultry or beef fat over medium heat.
  • Add flour and constantly stir until combined and a very smooth consistency is reached.


Combining Roux with A Liquid

  • Cool roux may be added to a hot liquid or
  • Cool liquid may be added to hot roux or
  • Roux may be added to the sauce temperature



  • The full thickening action of the roux is when the liquid has reached approximately 200°F.
  • For a light consistency use 14 oz. of roux to 1 gallon of liquid.
  • For a medium consistency use 15 to 16 oz. of roux per 1 gallon of liquid.
  • Long cooking sauces and stews are thickened further through reduction.

the roux 02Colors of the Roux

  • White ― Barely colored
  • Blonde ― Golden Straw with a slightly nutty aroma
  • Brown ― Deep brown with a strong nutty aroma
  • Dark Brown ― Dark brown with a pronounced nutty flavor and aroma


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Clarified Butter

Serves 6 – Preparation time 30 minutes.

clarified butter 01Clarified Butter



Clarified butter is made by heating whole butter until the butter fat, water and milk solids separate. Only use unsalted butter. Remaining butter volume will be lost.

Clarified butter is commonly used to make roux and has a higher smoke temperature, making it excellent for sautéing.


Clarified Butter Preparation

  • Heat butter over low heat
  • Skim off the foam and solids sink to the pan bottom
  • Decant the clarified butter

1 pound of whole butter yields approximately 12 oz. / 340 gr. of clarified.


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Bouquets, Sachets & Oignon Brûlé

Serves 6 – Preparation time 30 minutes.

Bouquets 01Herbs & Spices



These combinations of aromatic vegetables, herbs and spices are meant to enhance and support the flavors of a dish. They add flavors to stocks, sauces and soups by gently infusing the liquid with their aroma.


A Standard Bouquet GarniFor 1 gallon / 3.84 liter of liquid

  • 1 Sprig of Thyme
  • 3 or 4 Parsley Stems
  • 1 Bay Leaf
  • 2 or 3 Leek Leaves and/or 1 Celery Stalk, cut in half crosswise


A Standard Sachet d’ÉpicesFor 1 gallon / 3.84 liter of liquid

  • 3 or 4 Parsley Stems
  • 1 Sprig of Thyme or 1 tsp. / 2 gr. Dried Thyme
  • 1 Bay Leaf
  • 1 tsp. / 2 gr. Cracked Peppercorns
  • 1 Garlic Clove (optional)


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